Going back: History of Greece
The Neolithic period (6500-2900 BC) presents an important part in the history of Greece. The early Greeks learned to domesticate plants and animals and built permanent settlements on the coast. They depended on the Aegean Sea for trade and other necessities. As a result to this, between 3000-1500 BC, three communities thrived in Greece: the Aegeans, Achaeans, and Pelasgians.
The Minoan Civilization
The Aegeans settled in Crete, which became their center of Minoan civilization. Mycenae became the capital of the Achaeans. In 1400 BC, a strong volcanic eruption destroyed and crushed the Minoan means of livelihood so that they were forced to absorb to the Mycenaean Greeks.
Around 1200 BC, in the history of Greece, a conflict at Troy caused a 10-year war. The city was taken over by the armed invaders who hid themselves inside the large wooden Trojan horse.
In 1100-850 BC, known as the Dark Age, the Minoan civilization crumbled and the city-states or “polis” were ruled through a monarchical system. Immigrations to Asia Minor began as well as to Greece mainland.
The Archaic Period 800 – 500 BC
By 800-700 BC, the monarchies of the city-states were taken over by the Aristocrats. There was little democracy during these times since the kings and aristocrats acted like tyrants and majority of the people were not properly represented in the government. It is ironic to trace democracy back to the history of Greece with these events.
In 776 BC, the first Olympic games took place. The Olympics became pivotal in the Greek culture and gave birth to the Archaic Period. This period was characterized by foreign cultures fusing in to Greek ideas.
Classical Period 500-400 BC
The history of Greece continues into the Classical period (500-400 BC) wherein more wars erupted following invasion by Persia. In 461 BC, the conflict between the Athenians and Spartans broke out that led to the Peloponnesian War. Athens won in this war but later lost to the second Peloponnesian War that crushed its empire in 404 BC. In 399 BC, Socrates was put on trial and executed for objecting to the Thirty Tyrants, who then ruled.
The history of Greece also marked the Persian Wars in 490 BC, which exploded due to the invasion led by Darius the Great of Thrace. This invasion did not succeed and the Persians launched one more attack that ruined most parts of Athens. Still, the Greeks won in this attack and defeated the naval fleet of the invaders.
The Late Classical period 400 – 330 BC. In the year 386 BC, Pluto’s first Philosophical Academy was founded. By 338 BC, the powerful king Philip II of Macedonia took over and ruled the whole Greek peninsula. Alexander the Great began his reign in 336 – 323 BC. He conquered Egypt during his reign. His death in 323 BC in Babylon gave rise to the Hellenistic Age that basically ended the ancient history of Greece. The Christian orthodox religion can be traced back to the Roman occupancy in Greece by 44 BC.